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QAABDHISMEEDKA LAMAYADDA IYO BIYAHA ROOBKA

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Wednesday July 04, 2018 - 14:48:56 in Maqaallo by Wariye Tiriko
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    QAABDHISMEEDKA LAMAYADDA IYO BIYAHA ROOBKA

    QAABDHISMEEDKA LAMAYADDA IYO BIYAHA ROOBKA

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QAABDHISMEEDKA LAMAYADDA IYO BIYAHA ROOBKA
Waxaynu qormaddi labaad kaga soo hadalnay si guud labadda qaybood ee loo qaybiyo wadooyinka marka loo eeggo waxa ay ka samaysantahay iyo waliba nooca waddo ee badi laga isticmaalo waddankeena ,qormaddan akhristayaal waxaan ku lafa guri doonaa qaabdhismeedka
waddada iyo biyaha oo noqday shayga ugu wayn ee 90% burburiya wadooyinkeena mii’ iyo magaalaba Nooca waddo ee loo ogaal ogyahay cilmiga Highway engineering kaa (flexible pavement road ) oo ah nooca aynu isticmaalo ayaan doonayaa in aan idiin soo bandhigo qaabdhismeedkeedda Noocan waxa ay ka koobantahay afar leeyar amma lakab oo aan isleekayn balse kala dhumuc waa wayn . Afartaasi waxay kala yihiin sidda idiinka muuqadda sawirkan hoose sida ay u kala hooseeyaan marka loo eego (subgrade _ subbase_base coarse_iyo wearing coarse) materials (shayadda) ay ka koobanyihiin oo noqonaya (carro kaawo_ciid iyo jay dhumucyar oo la isku cadaadiyay_ jay tii hore kawaawayn _ iyo lakabka daamurka) waxa kale oo soo raaca saliid LAAMAY: amma jidkan casrigaa ee ay baabuurtu marto oo sitoosa loo ikhtiraacay dabayaaqaddii qarnigii 19 th


Waddadan waxa laga dhisikaraa mii’ iyo magaalaba , marka laga dhisayo magaalo dhexdeed waxa haboon in loo sameeyo keebis(kerbs) oo aankaga soo hadlay wuxuu yahay qormaddii kobaad .waddada marka laga dhisayo magaalo amma ladoonayo in ay isku xidho laba gobol amma laba magaalo oo waa wayn waa in loo sameeyo shoulders (garbo) halkii looga samayn lahaa kerbis waayo nooca biyo saar ee wadooyinka miiga laga sameeyo ayaa ah cross drainage Cimriga waddada : waa in ay jirtaa ugu yaraan 15 sano , sidaa waxa sheegaya Indian code

Qaar ka midda Qaybaha waddada ugu muhiimsan (flexible pavement road) iyo shaqooyinkoodda Carriage way : oo ah isku darka badka ay ku fadhiyaan labadda haad iyo waliba inta dhexe ee labadda baabuur isku waydaartaaan .stardard ka laqaato waa( 7.5m Indian code) lakin ugu yaraan lamma ogola caalamka oo dhan wax ka yar 6m, Wadooyinka badhtanka casimadda dhexmara waxay u badanyihin 7mitir ,marka baabuur hareeraha lagu parking garaystana 5 mitir bay ka yaraadaan , waana waxyaabaha ugu badan ee shilalka keena wadadaa cidhiidhiga ahi , mid ka timaadda xaga wadayaasha babuurta iyo mid ka timaada xaga samaysanka wadada Shoulders: waxay ku yaalaan labadda cidif ee waddada , waxa la isticmaalaa xaladdaha dagdagaa eeku imaada gadiidka , janjeedhyar ayuu leeyahay kaasoo u dhaandhiciya biyaha ogadda sare ee waddada ka soo qulqulaya si godka amma tuunbadda biyo saaraha ugu soo dhacaan , stardard ka laqaato waa( 1.75 m Indian code) Kerbs: biyaha waddada dhinaca kaga imanaya ayaa uu yareeyaa , wuxu yareeyaa shilalka waddo kabaxa ah , waddada bilic buu usoo kordhiyaa ,waxana loo istimaalaa uun magaaladda dhexdeeda caasimaddaha ,amma waddo kasta oo leh biyo saaraha nooca loo yaqaano( surface
darainage )
Embankment: waxa laga sameeyaa badhtamaha waddada (median of carriage ) si waddadu owood ay ugu yeelato in ay iska shubto biyaha dusha sare kaga imaadda oo ayna noqon laag
biyuhu faddhiistaan , waddoyinka caasimadda hargaysa ayaa gabi ahaan baa taa ka aradan , oo laago isku badalla xiliga roobabku da’ayaan
SIDA WADDADA LOOGA ILAALIYO BIYAHA ROOBKA
waddada waxa saameeya saddex nooc oo biya ah , si saddexdaa nooc looga badbaadiyo waddada waa in la sameeyo saddex biyo saar oo ku haboon
1. Biyaha dusha kaga imanaya ee roobku sababo : ku waasoo toos ugu soo dul da’aya
oogadda sare ee waddada (surface water) kuwan waxa lagaga hortagaa laba arimood

mid waxay la xidhiidhaa qaabdhismeedka waddada oo in badhtanka waddada waa in lagu sameeyo slope(janjeedh) yar 2% ah si waddadu ay awood u yeelato in ay biyaha iska shubto oo biyuhu ayna dulfadhiisan arrinka labaadna waa in la sameeyo (surface drainage) biyo saare inta badan shabag amma biro ayaa dusha lagaga xidhaa hoostana
waxa muhiima in laqodo ugu yaraan 0.5m qoto ahaan.. tuubo biyaha saartana waa lagu xidhikaraa . wadooyinkeena JSL 60% biyahan ayaa burburiya
2. Biyo waddada dhinac ka soo jiidha (cross water): waxa keena mar roobka gaar ahaan qulqul biyeedyadda ka dhasha roobka (run off water) marna waxa keena sidda wabi soo fatahay oo soo jiidhay waana biyaha ugu khatarsan ee gabi ahaanba baabiiya waddada waxa lagaga hortagaa biyo saare lagu magacaabo (cross drainage) . . wadooyinkeena JSL 29.9% biyahan ayaa saameeya gaar ahaan miiyadda (rural roads ) iyo waliba kuwa ay dooxyaddu maraan sidda dooxyadda kala duwan ee u dhexeeya magaaladda barbara iyo hargaysa ku waasoo baabuurtu ay go’doon galaan xilliga robobku da’yo ee dooxyadduna ay socdaan sida dooxa dacar budhuq oo sanadkasta qaada baabuur iyo dad kuna dara badda , waa in meela haasoo kale loo sameeyo biriij (bridge) biya saaraha noocana waxa kaliyoo lasamaynayaa marka waddadu ay simantahay ee ayna hog
iyo doox toona ahayn 3. Biyo hoosta kasoo maaxa: biyahan waxay ku badan yihiin meelaha roobabka badan ka da’o ku waasoo (water table ) amma biyaha dhulka hoostiiisu usoo dhawyahay waxa lagaga hortagaa biyo saare loogu yeedho (sub-surface drainage ) dhuumo ayaa la isticmaalaa
wadooyinkeena JSL 0.1% biyahan ayaa saameeya
waa in biyaha dhulka hoostiisu(ground water) ay ka fogaadaan lakabka ugu hooseeya ee jidka ugu yaraan 1.2m , haddii ay ka yaraadaan waxa lasamaynayaa cross drainage haddii ay ka bataana waxa lasamayn labadii biyo saare ee kale hadba ka ku haboon madaamoo wadooyinku yihiin dan guud iyo wax ummadda ka wadda dhaxaysa waa in qof waliba xil iska saaro ilaalinteedda oo ugu yaraan uu ka dhawro ku dul tuuridda khashinka sidda caagad biyo uu kacabay , qoryo, amma baco .waxa suurta galla marka waddada dhismaheedu socddo in bacdda amma kartoonka lagu dul tuuray ku dhagto daamurka taasoo hadhaw sababidonta jilayc ku imaadda lakabka sare ee waddada iyo in daamurka oo ka baxo meesha waddaduna boodh iyo godad (path ) isku badasho biyuhuna dhinac walba ay ka galaan laag ay maraan ay ka dhigtaan , ugu dan bayn waxa dhacdda meelaha suuqyadda ah waddada dhexmarta in ay tahay ta ugu burburka baddan uguna dayactirka badan waxa taas keenaya ayaa ah wajhaddaha meheraddaha ayaa ka dheer qaradda laamaydda (thickness of road) sidoo kale qaabka ay u dhisan yihiin meheraddaha soo eegaya waddada ayaa ah qaab ka qayb qaadanaya burburka waddooyinka gaar ahaan saqafyadooda (roofs) kuwaasoo u soo shubaya biyaha xagga hore noociisa oo ah (flat roof) taas xal keedu waa in saqafka laqariyo lagu xidho buulaacad biyaha uga soo dhaandhicisa , si fudud kadib waxay ku darsamayaan biyasaaraha waddada waa haddii waddadu leedahay biyo saare (drainage) haddii ayna lahayna waxay keenaysaa in biyaha roobka ee ka soo

dhacay saqafyadaas ay iskugu imaadaan badhtamaha wadda iyagoo biyihii dhinacna u dhaafin mar marka qaarna ay dul fadhiistaan mar marka qaarna ay qulqulaan illa ayku biirayaan dooxyadda jidkana sii burburiyaan wadooyinka waa danguud danta guudna waxay u baahantahay ilaashi wadareed

QORMADDA AFRAAD
W/Q: Eng abdiladif mohamed cirday
abdiladif.m.4@gmail.com


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