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Comparative study on Educational Difference between Gaboye Community and Other Community in Gabiley District, Somaliland. A cross-tabulation analysis study.

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Sunday September 13, 2020 - 10:39:01 in Maqaallo by Wariye Tiriko
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    Comparative study on Educational Difference between Gaboye Community and Other Community in Gabiley District, Somaliland. A cross-tabulation analysis study.

    Comparative study on Educational Difference between Gaboye Community and Other Community in Gabiley District, Somaliland. A cross-tabulation analysis study.

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Comparative study on Educational Difference between Gaboye Community and Other Community in Gabiley District, Somaliland. A cross-tabulation analysis study.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2
2. Terminology used for Gaboye community 3
3. Problem statement 3
4. Goal 4
4.1. Specific objectives 4
5. Research Hypothesis 4
6. Scope of study 4
7. Methodology 5
7.1. Research design 5
7.2. Population 5
7.3. Sample size 5
7.4. Sample technique 5
7.5. Tools and techniques for data collection 5
7.6. Data analysis 5
8. Research findings 5
9. Recommendation and conclusion 9
Conclusion 9


12 th September, 2020.

By:
Mohamed Mohamoud Omer
Researcher, and M&E consultant Bachelor of Development Studies at Kampala International University-KIU, Uganda
Post-Graduate-Diploma in Monitoring and Evaluation at Uganda Christian University-UCU, Uganda.
[email protected] (+252-634850653).

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1. Introduction
Most studies focus on socio-economic and political discrimination against Gaboye community in Somalia. However, this study compares educational level rates among youth in Gaboye Community and Other communities in Gabiley District, Somaliland. Education is a power that
triggers to socio-economic and political development at individual, community, and government level. Without education, people suffer to catch up with this contemporary world
mostly characterized with tremendous technological movement. For example, in Somaliland people use ZAAD and E-Dahab (mobile money system) for their money transaction system. This
means that without education, people in the country cannot use ZAAD or E-DAHAB. "Access to education in Somaliland is extremely limited, with more than 50% of children in Somaliland are
out of school” UNICEF, 13 July, 2019. 1 The report also added that Drought, food insecurity,
poverty and inequality are some of the challenges that hinder efforts to get more Somaliland children and youth in schools. Further, the report admits that the education prospects for
children in rural areas, and school age Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Somaliland are particularly poor: only 26 per cent of children in rural communities, and 16 per cent of IDP
children, are enrolled in primary schools.
Some studies link that Gaboye community poor education is due to the social discrimination
and stigma in Somaliland. However, this study observed that majority of Gaboye community
doesn’t know the importance of education as they see significant number of other
communities’ graduates are not Employed. During my recent cross-sectional study, youth
participants from Gaboye Community reported that education couldn’t help their problems.

One of the significance of this study was the fact that youth, community, parliament and Civil
Society Organizations (CSOs) debate on Gaboye quota member parliaments in Somaliland

1
https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/07/1042401#:~:text=The%20education%20prospects%20fo
r%20children%20in%20rural%20areas%2C,of%20IDP%20children%2C%20are%20enrolled%20in
%20primary%20schools.

3
country. Recently, Somaliland ruling party and other two opposition parties agreed on that 3
parliament members have to be contested by only Gaboye Community.

This study determined educational level differences among youth participants from Gaboye
Community and Other Communities in Gabiley District, Somaliland. More specifically, the study
focused on educational variable categories such as: whether participants don’t go to school; at
primary, secondary or university level.

2. Terminology used for Gaboye community
According to the Somali Minority Rights and Aid Forum (SOMRAF), a Nairobi-based non-profit
human rights, aid and development NGO working in Somalia and other countries (MRG Oct,
2010), non-pastoralist groups are generally considered "inferior or minority groups” in Somalia
(SOMRAF, 2010). 2

UK-based NGO that monitors the social, economic and political situation of the Gaboye in East-
Africa (11 June, 2012), explained that the "clan” refers to itself as Gaboye, while other clans use
the rude term "Midgan”.

Minority Rights Group International (MRG) indicates that, in Somaliland, "Gaboye” is a
preferred and non-insulting term replacing the historically pejorative associations of "Midgan”
as usded by majority clans. MRG also states that the community accepted term in Somalia is
"Madhiban” (Ibid).
3. Problem statement
In the ideal situation, every individual wishes to study and go to school. Islam encourages in
studying including reading and writing. Ironically, education is a power that a person reads and
writes. It is a power that a community explicitly knows what is right and wrong. It is the power
of which society transforms from illiterate to literate, from poor to rich. Successful education
stimulates good idea of business venture and innovation.
However, Gaboye community is characterized by Low-self-esteem and lack of confidence.
Majority of Gaboye community individuals don’t go to school and even if they go to school they
2 https://www.refworld.org/docid/51e4fce94.html

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drop-out from primary level without completion. Furthermore, people with low self-esteem are
"hyper vigilant and hyper alert to signs of rejection, inadequacy, and rebuff,” 3 Often, individuals
lacking self-esteem see rejection and disapproval even when there isn’t any. "The danger
always lurks that [they] will make a mistake, use poor judgment, do something embarrassing,
expose [themselves] to ridicule, behave immorally or contemptibly. Life, in all its variety, poses
on ongoing threat to the self-esteem.” 4 Statistics that show Gaboye Community
educational level in Somaliland is rare and hardly found.
Therefore, this study will compare education level between Gaboye community and other
community in Gabiley district, Somaliland.

4. Goal
To compare educational level between Gaboye community and other community in Gabiley
District, Somaliland. This study will employ cross-tabulation analysis.
4.1. Specific objectives
1. To compare illiterate level between Gaboye Community and other community in
Gabiley district in Somaliland.
2. To compare primary school level between Gaboye Community and other community in
Gabiley district in Somaliland.
3. To compare secondary school level between Gaboye Community and other community
in Gabiley district in Somaliland.
4. To compare university level between Gaboye Community and other community in
Gabiley district in Somaliland.

5. Research Hypothesis
Gaboye community educational level is significantly lower than the other communities.

6. Scope of study
Gabiley district is located west of Hargeisa away from 45KMs. It is in Marodi-jex region. People
are always engaged in farming and animal rearing. It is named as the green region.
3 Rosenberg and Owens
4 https://www.psychalive.org/low-self-esteem/#:~:text=Low%20self-
esteem%20is%20characterized%20by%20a%20lack%20of,people%20with%20low%20self-
esteem%20tend%20to%20be%20hypersensitive.

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7. Methodology
7.1. Research design
The researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative approach. Further, the researcher
used cross-sectional survey as a design.
7.2. Population
Population in Gabiley district, Somaliland.
7.3. Sample size
The researcher selected 200 research participants/respondents (Gaboye community=100; and
Other community=100) in Gabiley district.
7.4. Sample technique
The researcher applied purpose sampling technique.
7.5. Tools and techniques for data collection
The researcher used questionnaire as a tool for data collection and Non-Self-Administered-
Questionnaire as a technique.
7.6. Data analysis
The researcher employed SPSS and specifically Cross-Tabulation-Analysis and Frequency
analysis to analyze the collected data. Furthermore, the researcher used Chi-square test under
cross-tabulation-analysis. Cross-tabulation analysis made it easy to compare educational
differences between Gaboye community and other community and hence meeting research
objectives.

8. Research findings
Statistics
What is your age?
N Valid 200
Missing 0

What is your age?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

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Valid 5-13 68 34.0 34.0 34.0
14-18 21 10.5 10.5 44.5
19-30 43 21.5 21.5 66.0
31 and above 68 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

As the above table shows all the research participants were present.
As the above table shows, 34% (68 participants) of the research participants were 5-13 years
old; 10.5% (21 participants) were in 14-18 years old; 21.5% (43 participants) were in 19-30 years
old while 34% (68 participants) were in 31 and above years old.

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Cross-tabs:

Case Processing Summary
Cases

Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent

What is your educational
level? * Community in
Gabiley District

200 100.0% 0 .0% 200 100.0%

As the above table shows, none of the research participants were absent.

What is your educational level? * Community in Gabiley District Crosstabulation
Count

Community in Gabiley District

Total

Gaboye
Community Other community

What is your educational
level?

Not go to school 55 7 62
Primary 35 44 79
Secondary 9 29 38
University level 1 20 21
Total 100 100 200

As the above table shows, looking at Gaboye Community 55 research participants were in the
category of not go to school; 35 were in primary; 9 were in secondary and 1 in at University

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level. Meanwhile, other community 7 research participants were in the category of not go to
school; 44 were in Primary; 29 were in secondary and 20 in at university level.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df

Asymp. Sig. (2-
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 65.903 a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 75.410 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 61.300 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 200
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum
expected count is 10.50.
The value of the test statistics is 65.903
The footnote for this statistic pertains to the expected cell count assumption (i.e, expected cell
counts are all greater than 5): no cell had an expected count less than 5, so this assumption was
me. The assumption was that Gaboye Community experiences significantly lower education
than the Other Community in Gabiley District, Somaliland.

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9. Recommendation and conclusion
The researcher recommends that:
1. The government, private sector and the NGOs increase their efforts towards accessible
education targeting Gaboye Community.
2. That Gaboye community should compete with the rest of the society in Somaliland.
Conclusion
Gaboye community experiences very poor education compared to the rest of society in
Somaliland.
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